Structure Query Language

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Structure Query Language

Structure Query Language

SQL provides construct for updating, inserting, and deleting information.

Update through views is allowed only when some fairly restrictive conditions are satisfied.

Introduction to ER Model.

Structure Query Language Includes:

  • Data Definition Language (DDL)
  • Interactive Data Manipulation Language(DML)
  • Integrity.
  • View Definition.
  • Transaction Control.
  • Embedded SQL.
  • Authorization.


Basic Domain Types of Oracle of Structure Query Language.

  • char(n)
  • varchar(n)
  • int
  • smallint
  • numeric(p,d)
  • real,double precision
  • float(n)

A transaction consists of a sequence of query and / or update statements.

  • Commit work: commits the current transaction.
  • Rollback work: current transactions to be rolled back.

Set Operations:

  • union
  • intersect
  • except

Aggregate functions:

  • AVG
  • MIN
  • MAX
  • SUM

Scalar functions:

  • MID
  • LEN
  • NOW

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